wheat allergy

Is Gluten a Cause of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in People Without Celiac Disease?


"The avoidance of wheat- and gluten-containing products is a worldwide phenomenon. While celiac disease is a well-established entity, the evidence base for gluten as a trigger of symptoms in patients without celiac disease (so-called 'non-celiac gluten sensitivity' or NCGS) is limited. The problems lie in the complexity of wheat and the ability of its carbohydrate as well as protein components to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms, the potentially false assumption that response to a gluten-free diet equates to an effect of gluten withdrawal, and diagnostic criteria for coeliac disease. Recent randomized controlled re-challenge trials have suggested that gluten may worsen gastrointestinal symptoms, but failed to confirm patients with self-perceived NCGS have specific gluten sensitivity. Furthermore, mechanisms by which gluten triggers symptoms have yet to be identified. This review discusses the most recent scientific evidence and our current understanding of NCGS."



Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: clinical relevance and recommendations for future research.



There has been increasing interest in the entity of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity(NCGS) in recent years; however, it still remains a controversial topic and its pathogenesis is not well understood. Celiac Disease, in contrast, is a well-studied condition that has become increasingly recognized as a prevalent condition arising from a heightened immunological response to gluten. Wheat allergy is an IgE-mediated condition capable of causing a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the number of patients who have neither celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to derive benefit from a gluten-free diet, is also increasing substantially. The use of the term NCGS as a way of describing this condition has become increasingly prevalent in recent years.


In this review, we will focus on gastrointestinal manifestations of NCGS and discuss the evidence for the condition and its putative pathogenesis. We will discuss areas of controversy and areas for potential future research."


Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: the new frontier of gluten related disorders.


"Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a "re-discovered" disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS."

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